Regla, y establecimientos nueuos de la Orden, y Caualleria del Glorioso Apostol Santiago (1655)

This book’s title translates to Rule, and new establishments of the Order, and Cavalry of the Glorious Apostle Santiago.

The Order of Santiago was a Christian and military organization founded in Spain in the 12th century to battle Arab forces. By the 17th century, it served more as a fraternal organization.

This book is significant because it contains two engravings and several mistakes and modifications.


These illustrations are engravings. To make an engraving, an artist uses a tool to physically carve designs into a metal plate. Then, these depressions are filled with ink for printing. Another similar method is known as etching, in which an artist uses acid to dissolve premade patterns on a plate. Both offer an artist more flexibility and detail in design than woodcuts. This is the only book in the C. W. Miller collection to contain etchings. Hover over the images above to learn more about them.

Mistakes and Modifications

This book shows signs of usage after publication. The book, therefore, represents a living, dynamic artifact with relevance beyond its initial creation. Some points of interest are shown below.